Tuesday, July 16, 2024
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The Elusive Strategy of China

Dr. Muhammad Akram Zaheer

China’s rise as a global superpower has been accompanied by a perceived sense of ambiguity and uncertainty surrounding its foreign policy strategy. China has articulated its foreign policy objectives through official channelsits actual intentions and methods have been subject to speculation and debate among policymakers and scholars. This has led to concerns about China’s long-term goals and the potential implications for global security and stability.The elusive nature of China’s strategy can be attributed to several factors, including the country’s historical and cultural context, its complex domestic politics, and its rapidly evolving economic and military power. China’s emphasis on non-interference and sovereignty combined with its assertive actions in the South China Sea and elsewhere, has created a paradoxical image of a country that is simultaneously defensive and expansionist.

Economic development: China has been pursuing a policy of economic growth and modernization for several decades, and this remains a key component of its strategy. The country has become a major player in the global economy, with a focus on exports, foreign investment, and technology development. China is also working to modernize its military, investing heavily in new technologies and capabilities such as cyber warfare, space technology, and artificial intelligence. This is seen as part of China’s broader effort to assert itself as a major global power.

China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a massive infrastructure development project that aims to connect China with countries in Asia, Europe, and Africa through a network of roads, railways, ports, and other infrastructure. The BRI is seen as a way for China to extend its economic and political influence beyond its borders. China is also engaged in a range of diplomatic efforts, including building alliances and partnerships with other countries, promoting its own version of international law and order, and using soft power to influence public opinion and perceptions of China. China’s strategy is also shaped by its Communist ideology and its view of itself as a major power with a distinct political and cultural identity. This is reflected in China’s domestic policies, such as its strict controls on the media and the internet, as well as its efforts to promote its own version of international human rights and democracy

China’s foreign policy has also become more ambitious under Xi Jinping. The country’s growing belligerence marks a break with its earlier passivity, shaped by Deng Xiaoping’s proverb “Hide your strength, seize your time”. The military build-up in particular, shows that China is pursuing a long-term plan. Deng advised other Chinese leaders to wait and see in the 1990s, the country was impoverished with a weak economy. This economy has grown by 800% and now has a large population. China has bided its time and expanded its power, and today it has aspired to a broader regional and global role, as do all great powers with escalation of wealth and power. Since 1945, the great states that have risen to prosperity and prominence have been Washington’s closest allies, if not quasi-protectors: Germany, Japan, and South Korea. A typically disruptive feature of international politics the rise of new powers was therefore unusually benign for the United States. Not only is the People’s Republic of China much larger than the rising powers of its predecessors it has always been outside the US alliance structure and sphere of influence. American foreign policy from both parties has become adapted to a world in which America is the undisputed leader. Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright has explained “We are America; we are the indispensable nation,” she said. “We stand tall and look further into the future than other countries.”

In 2019, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo claimed in a statement that would surely infuriate any Chinese citizen that the United States and its allies needed to put China “in its rightful place.” China’s sin, according to Pompeo, is that it spends more on its military than it needs on its defenses. The same, of course, applies to the United States and France, Russia, Great Britain and other large countries. In fact, a useful definition of a great power is a country that cares about more than its own immediate security. The political climate in Washington always pushes policymakers to be “hard” rather than “soft” a dangerous way of conducting international affairs. The real question is, can they be smart instead of stupid? America’s new hawkish consensus on China is awkward, without any discussion of how its target will respond. Beijing has its own hawks who have warned for years that the US wants to hold China down and even seek regime change in Beijing. More importantly, the Trump administration’s stance has validated these voices, giving them the leverage to encourage the very kind of aggressive and destabilizing behavior in China that US policy seeks to prevent. This dynamic, with each side arm reinforcing the other, increases tension and increases the risk of collision. It’s important to note that Trump’s tough tactics have achieved none of his goals from closing the US trade deficit to winning Beijing’s support in dealing with North Korea and Iran. In the result China is being more aggressive on the outside and more repressive at home. American determination is rooted in the fear that China might one day take over the entire world. This is a dangerous fear because in the history, when a prominent power perceives that it is losing ground, it often anticipates and exploits the “window of danger” that its rise does not fall. It was this kind of rationality that drove European politicians to war in 1914. During its rise Washington neither succeeded in conquering the world, the Soviet Union, Japan or Afghanistan despite of some horrible events. On the other hand, China with all its successes and strengths is facing of internal challenges from a shrinking population to a mountain of debt. The Communist Party also faces an uncertain political future. Despite a decade of political repression on the mainland, it is true that the rise of the middle class is fueling aspirations.

Most importantly, China’s rise has unsettled nearly all of its neighbors, from Japan to India to Australia. Xi’s foreign policy has dramatically increased these countries’ fears, prompting many of them to fundamentally reconsider their foreign policies. Ever since the June 2020 border skirmish that left dozens dead, India appears to be pursuing a long-term strategy to balance China. Despite its heavy reliance on the Chinese market, Australia now views China as its main adversary, particularly given Beijing’s many cyberattacks on Australian targets, and has called for a global probe into how Beijing mishandled the first Covid-19 outbreak. Japan revived the Trans-Pacific Partnership, bringing other countries on board and ensuring implementation of the agreement. Even Vietnam, wary of its larger neighbor, has embarked on what was once unthinkable: if not an alliance but a military partnership with its old enemy the United States. Taiwan’s people have re-elected an anti-China president and are turning more hostile to the mainland, making military options more difficult and expensive for Beijing. China’s greatest geostrategic weakness has always been its abundance of neighboring countries who oppose his rise. Far from addressing this deficiency, Xi’s policies have exacerbated it. China is emerging today but embedded in a vast continent with hostile neighbors who are becoming more hostile.

China has been pursuing a strategy of economic expansion to become a global economic power. Its emphasis on infrastructure development, technological advancement, and industrial upgrading has enabled it to achieve impressive economic growth over the past few decades. The outcome of this strategy is that China has become the world’s second-largest economy, and its economic influence is felt globally.

China has been actively promoting its cultural and political values through soft power projection. Its focus on cultural diplomacy, education, and media has helped to increase its influence in the world. The outcome of this strategy is that China is increasingly seen as a global leader in certain areas, such as climate change, technology, and development.

China has been increasing its military capabilities in recent years, including the modernization of its armed forces and the expansion of its naval presence. The outcome of this strategy is that China is becoming a more assertive player in regional and global security issues, which has raised concerns among its neighbors and other countries.

China has been expanding its geopolitical influence by developing close relationships with other countries through its Belt and Road Initiative and other economic and diplomatic initiatives. The outcome of this strategy is that China is becoming an increasingly important player in global politics, challenging the traditional dominance of Western powers.

The outcome of China’s elusive strategy is complex and multifaceted, and its long-term effects are difficult to predict. While China has achieved significant success in some areas, such as economic expansion and soft power projection, its increasing assertiveness and geopolitical ambitions have also raised concerns among other countries.

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